9 Chapter 8: Transportation in foreign trade

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1. Carriage by Sea

Among the main features in the recent development of shipping are the following:

1. the increase in the size and speed of ships

2. the change over from coal-fired to oil-fired ships

3. the tendency to build ships to carry particular types of such bulk cargoes such as oil, mineral ores, meat, fruit and vegetables.

4. the greatly increased use of the container

1.1. Types of vessels

There are a variety of vessels available for exporters to use when shipping goods:

Passenger liners are ships that follow scheduled routes and concentrate on passenger services, but also carry cargoes.

Passenger cargo vessels concentrate on cargoes, offer more facilities for loading and unloading, but carry few passengers.

Tramps travel anywhere in the would on unscheduled routes, picking up any cargo and delivering it.

Tankers are usually oil carries, and are like bulk carries which transport bulk consignments such as grain, wheat, and ores.

Container vessels offer facilities to move containers from one country to another, and have special lifting gear and storage space for the huge steel boxes they transport.

Roll-on roll-off ferries are vessels which allow cars and trucks to drive on at one port and off at another without having to load and unload their freight.

There are also barges, large flat -bottomed boats, which transport goods inland along canals and waterways, and lighters which may do the same work as a barge, or are used for taking goods from a port out to a ship, or vice versa.

Note that before the name of the ship, which is usually underlined in correspondence, the letters SS are used. These stand for Steam Ship and show it is a British Merchant vessel. MV, Motor Vessel, and MS. Motor ship, are also used.

1.2. Shipping Organization

The exporter also has a choice as to whether he uses a company which is a member of the Shipping Conference Group, or one that is listed on the Baltic Exchange.

The Shipping Conference is an international organization of ship owners who have agreed to fix prices for transporting goods or passengers. They meet periodically to set cost for hiring their vessels. The advantage for their customers is that the costs of shipment are steady, i.e. do not fluctuate over a short period, and universal, i.e. the same price is quoted by all members. They can also claim rebates (discounts by shipping in bulk. A similar body to the Shipping Conference can be found in airlines – IATA, International Air Transport Association.

The Baltic Exchange has a number of functions, but its freight market offers facilities to exporters to charter (hire) ships and planes through brokers, who work on a commission and are specialists with a knowledge of the movement of ships and the most competitive rates available at any one time. See 7 Chartering ships for more details of this.

1.3. Shipping documentation

We have seen that there are a number of documents used in overseas trade. Now we can look at the main documents used in shipping.

A freight account is an invoice sent by the shipping company to the exporter stating their charges. Once the goods are received on the dock, a shipping note, with a receipt, is handed to the Superintendent of the docks, advising him that the goods are to be shipped. A dock receipt, (sometimes called a wharfinger’s receipt) will be returned to the consignor confirming that the goods are stored and awaiting shipment. Once the goods are on board the ship, a mate’s receipt may be sent, acknowledging that the goods have been loaded. The mate’s receipt is often sent when the consignment is loaded directly, and serves as a document of title until the bill of lading is ready.

The bill of lading (B/L or blading) is the most important document in shipping as it is a document of title, i.e. gives ownership of the goods to the person named on it. If the words “to order” are written on it, it means that it is a negotiable document and can be trade. In an l/c transaction the confirming bank will usually ask for the b/l to be made out to them when they pay the exporter, then transfer it to the customer.

A shipped bill of lading means that the goods have been loaded on to the ship. Sometimes the words “shipped on board” are used to mean the same thing. In CIF and CFR transaction the words “freight prepaid” are used to signify that the costs of shipment have been paid. Bills are also marked “clean” to indicate that the goods were taken on board in goods condition, or “dirty/claused” to indicate that on inspection there was found to be something wrong with the consignment, e.g. packing, or the goods were damaged. This statement protects the shipping company from claims that they were responsible for, the damage or bad condition of the consignment.

Usually two copies of the B/L are sent to the buyer or his bank, by air and sea for security.

1.4. Shipping liabilities

The Hague Rules signed at the Brussels Convention in 1924 govern liability for loss or damage to cargo carried by sea under a bill of lading, and state that the carrier will not be responsible under the following conditions.

Acts of war, riots, civil disturbances; Force majeure, i.e. exceptional dangers such as storms, abnormal disturbances, or unusual hazards: Negligence i.e. when the goods have not been properly packed, or were in a bad condition when packed;

Inherent vice, i.e. when goods are subject to deterioration because of their content or nature. For example, fish can go bad, wood can carry insects, metal can oxidize.

The Hamburg Rules of 1978 have extended the shipping companies liability for damage or delay to “goods in their charge” unless they can prove they took all measures to avoid problems.

To be safe, most companies insure their consignment under all risk cover, which protects them against most contingencies, but special “war Insurance” is necessary for particularly dangerous zones.

1.5. Forwarding agents

Forwarding agents are used by exporters to arrange both import and export shipment. In the case of the former, their services include collecting the consignment, arranging shipment, and if required, packing and handling all documentation, including making out the bill of lading, obtaining insurance, sending commercial invoices and paying the shipping company for their clients. They also inform the importer’s forwarding agent that the shipment is on its way by sending an advice note, and he, in turn, will inform his client, send the goods on to him, or arrange for them to be stored until collected. Many forwarding agents in importing countries also act as clearing agents, ensuring that the goods are cleared through the customs and are sent to the importer.

Because forwarding agents handle many shipments they can collect consignments for the same destination and get competitive “groupage rates” for sending a lot of consignments in one shipment. However, may exporters find it more convenient to deal direct with the forwarding agents in the importer’s country, and some importers prefer to deal with their supplier’s forwarding agent.

Example 1.

Request for Freight Rates and Sailing’s

Dear Sirs,

We intend to ship a consignment of dinghies and their equipment to London at the beginning of next month. The consignment consists of ten boats which have been packed into wooden crates marked 1-10, each measuring 4x2x2,5 metres and weighing 90 kilos.

Could you inform us which vessels are available to reach London before the end of next month, and let us know your freight rates?

Yours faithfully,

b. Reply to Request for Freight Rates and Sailing’s

Dear Mr. Lee,

Thank you for your enquiry of 21 April. Enclosed you will find details of our sailing for the end of this month and the beginning of next, from Hong Kong to Tilbury.

You will see that the first available vessel we have will be the MS Orient which will accept cargo from 3 May to 7 May. When she sails, she is due in Tilbury on 3 June.

Our freight rate for crated consignment is £ 31.00 per tonne, and I have attached our Shipping Instructions to the enclosed itinerary.

Yours faithfully,

Instruction to a Forwarding Agent

Dear Mr. Simpson,

Could you please pick up a consignment of 20 C2000 computer and make the necessary arrangements for them to be shipped to Mr. M. Tanner, N.Z. Business Machines Pry., 100 South Street, Wellington, New Zealand?

Would you please handle all the shipping formalities and insurance, and send us seven copies of the bill of lading, five copies of the commercial invoice, and the insurance certificate? We will advise our customers of shipment ourselves, and would appreciate it if your could treat the matter as urgent. Your charges may be sent to us in the usual way.

Yours sincerely,

Forwarding Agent’s Enquiry for Freight Rates

Dear Sirs,

We have packed and made ready for shipment 20 C2000 computers which our clients, Delta Computers, Wellingborough, want us to forward to Wellington, New Zealand.

The consignment consists of 4 wooden crates, each containing 5 machines and their cases. The weight of each crate is 210 kilos and measures 94 x 136 x 82cm.

Would you let us know by return of post the earliest vessel leaving London for New Zealand, and let us have your charges and the relevant documents?

Yours faithfully,

Shipping company’s Reply

Dear Mr. Simpson,

In reply to your letter of May 12, the earliest vessel due out of London for New Zealand is the SS Northern Cross which is at present loading at No. 3 Dock, Tilbury, and will accept cargo until May 18 when she sails. She is due in Wellington on June 25, and the freight rate for cased cargo is £ 112.00 per ton or 10 cubic metres.

I have enclosed our shipping form and bill of lading for you to complete and return to us.

Yours sincerely,

d. Confirmation of Shipment

Dear Miss Pollard,

We have arranged for the consignment of computers, the subject of our letter of 12 May, to be sent to Tilbury for loading on to the MS Northern Cross which sails for New Zealand on 18 May.

Enclosed you will find the completed shipping form and bill of lading (10 copies), eight copies of which should be signed and returned to us. I have also attached a cheque in payment of your freight account.

Yours sincerely,

Example 2.

Advice of Shipment to Importer’s Forwarding Agent

Dear Mr. Jones,

The following consignment will arrive on the SS America which is due in Liverpool on 27 April.

20 “Lightning” 1000cc motorcycles

Packed 1 machine per wooden crate

Weight 1.25 tons gross

Size 6′ x 3′ x 2′

Markings Cases numbered 1-20 HM

Value £ 4,800 each

Insurance Chicago – Nottingham England (A.R.)

Invoiced value £ 96,000

Could you please arrange for the consignment to be delivered to your clients, Glough & Book Ltd., Nottingham? If there are any problems, please contact us immediately.

Yours truly,

Advice of Shipment to Importer

Dear Mr. Glough

Order No. 8901/6

The above order was shipped on 17 April 20… on the MS America which is due in Liverpool on 27 April.

We have informed your agents, Eddis Jones, who will make arrangements for the consignment to be sent to you, as you requested.

Our bank’s agents, Westmorland Bank Ltd., High Street, Nottingham, will hand over the documents which consist of a shipped clean bill of lading (No. 517302), invoice (No. EH3314), and insurance certificate (AR 118 4531), once you have accepted our bill.

We are sure you will be delighted when you see the machines, and that they will find a ready market in your country. Meanwhile we are enclosing a catalogue of our new models and believe you will be very interested in the machines illustrated on pp. 103-110. We look forward to hearing from you again in due course.

Yours truly,

Example 3.

Delay in Arrival of Shipment

Dear Miss Pollard,

Our clients, Delta Computers, Welling Bourough, inform us that they have received a cable from their customers, N.Z. Business Machines, Wellington, that the MS Northern Cross was due in Wellington on June 28 has not yet arrived.

The vessel was carrying a consignment of computers for our clients shipped B/L 6715, and they want to know why the ship has been delayed. A prompt reply would be appreciated.

Yours sincerely,

Shipping Company’s Reply

Dear Mr. Simpson,

In answer to your letter of 28 June, we are pleased to inform you that the MS Northern Cross has now docked in Wellington, but was delayed by engine trouble. I am sure that your customers will now have been able to collect their consignment and apologize for the delay. As you know from previous experience of shipping with us, our line deeps to schedules and this incident was an unfortunate exception. Please contact us if there is any further information you require.

Yours sincerely,

1.5. The Container Service

The use of containers provides a highly efficient from of transport by road, rail and air, though its fullest benefits are felt in shipping where costs may be reduced by as much as one half. Containers are constructed in metal and are of standard lengths ranging from ten to forty feet.

The service has the following advantages:

1. The containers can be loaded and locked at the factory premises or at nearby container bases making pilferage impossible

2. There is no risk of goods getting lost or mislaid in transit

3. Handling is greatly reduced, with lower cost and less risk of damage

4. Mechanical handling enables cargoes to be loaded in a matter of hour rather than days, thus reducing the time ships spend in port and greatly increasing the number of sailings

5. Temperature-controlled containers are available

1.6. Documentation for Exporting Goods by Container

A bill of lading can be used as it is in ordinary shipment, with the usual condition applying, i.e. a clean shipped on board bill, naming the port of acceptance (where the goods have been loaded) and port of delivery (where the goods will be unloaded). In this case the shipping company only accepts responsibility for the goods while on board ship. but if a combined transport bill of lading is used, the place of acceptance and placing of delivery may be covered, which means the company accepts door-to-door responsibility, which offers more extensive cover than the bill of lading.

Non-negotiable waybills are also used, but unless instructed, banks will not accepts them as evidence of shipment, and they are not documents of title which can be transferred. Although way bills do not have clauses relating to responsibility printed on the back of them, as bills of lading do, container companies will accept the usual liabilities as applying to the waybill.

1.7. Documentation for Importing Goods by Container

A freight invoice is needed if the sea freight is to be paid in the UK and this is accompanied by an arrival notification form, which advises the importer that his goods are coming. On claiming his goods, the customers has to show a customs clearance form, which allows the goods to be taxed, copies of the certificate of origin, if necessary, commercial invoices, import license, and health certificate for food or animal imports. The bill of lading or waybill also has to be produced to prove ownership of the goods, and the customs issues an out of charge note once the goods have been cleared by them.

This procedure is not unique to container importation, but common to any form of imports. This is one of the reasons why Clearing Agents are employed by either exporters, to get their goods accepted quickly in a foreign country, or importers, to clear their goods in their own country.

Example 1.

­Inquiry to a Container Company

Dear Sirs,

We are a large steel company and wish to export a consignment of steel tubing, approximate weight 16 tonnes, and lengths varying from 2 to 5 metres.

The consignment is destined for Dotner Industries, Hamburg. Could you pick up the load, transport it to London from Sheffield, and then deliver it to its destination in Germany by the end of April?

Please let us have details of your sailings and freight charges, and we can promise you regular shipments if you quote a competitive rate.

Yours faithfully,

Container company’s Reply

Dear Mr. Pike,

Thank you for your enquiry of March 15 which we received today. Enclosed you will find details of our rates, shipping schedules, and documents required for transportation.

The most suitable containers for your consignment would be a half-height container which is 20’x 8’x 4′ or, in metres, 6,1 x 2,4 x 1,2. This can carry a payload of 18,300kg. It has a solid removable top, and will protect the metal against all elements.

I would suggest that as the consignment is going to be loaded from lorry to shipment then transferred again. You should use our Combined Transport Bill which will cover the goods from point of acceptance to point of delivery. And if the transaction is on a letter of credit basis, you should advice your bank that this documents will be acceptable instead of the B/L.

Would you fill out the enclosed Export Cargo Shipping Instructions and the Export Cargo Packing Instructions and hand them to our driver when he calls? Although we accept door-to-door responsibility, we would advise you to take an all risk insurance policy, and send a copy of this and three copies of the commercial invoice to us.

Your packing should be adequate, and the cargo marked on at least two sides with a shipping mark which includes the destination port, and these marks should correspond with those on your shipping documents.

The MS Europe sails from Tilbury on March 26 and will arrive in Hamburg March 28, which appears to suit your schedule for delivery. Please note, however, that the vessel closes for cargo on March 24.

You will see from our list of tariffs that charges are calculated by cubic metre or cubic kilogram and that we offer substantial rebates for regular shipments.

If you want us to reserve a space on MS Europe, please complete the enclosed forms and return them to us as soon as possible.

Yours sincerely,

1.8. Chartering a Ship

Ship chartering is usually arranged through ship brokers, and in London there is a special centre where brokers conduct business, namely the Baltic Exchange.

Once a broker is contacted he will find a ship owner who is prepared to hire his vessel on either a “voyage charter” of “time charter” basis.

Voyage charger charges, i.e. taking freight from port A to B, are calculated on the tonnage value of the cargo. For example, if an exporter ships 500 tons of coal at £ 1.20 per ton, he will pay £ 600.00 for the charter.

Time charter charges are calculated on the tonnages of the ship (i.e. the weigh of the ship) plus running costs of the vessels, excluding wages. So the larger the ship, the more the charter pays, regardless of whether he ships 500 tons or 5,000 tons.

There are also mixed charters combining both time and voyage charters. The contract signed by both parties is known as a charter party.

Ships listed on the Baltic Exchange do not run on scheduled routes, and freight rates vary from company to company depending on supply and demand. correspondence between hirers and brokers, and brokers and owners is done by phone, telex, fax, or cable, with letters confirming the transaction.

Example 1.

Inquiry for a Time Charter

Dear Sirs,

This letter is to confirm our telex to you this morning in which we asked if you could find a ship of six to seven thousand tons which we could charter for six months to take shipments of grain from Baltimore, in North America, to various ports along the South American coast.

We will need a ship that is capable of making a fast turn round and will be able to manage at least ten trips within the period.

Yours faithfully,

Shipbroker’s Reply

Dear Mr. Meredrew,

With reference to your telex and letter, we are pleased to inform you that we have been able to secure the vessel you asked for.

She is the MS Manhattan and is docked at present in Boston. She has a cargo capacity of sevent thousand tons, is a bulk carrier, and has a speed of 24 knots which will certainly be able to make the number of trips you mentioned.

Please cable us to confirm the charter and we will send you the charter party.

Yours sincerely,

Example 2.

Inquiry for a Voyage Charter

Dear Sirs,

We would like to charter a vessel for one voyage from Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia, to St Malo, Brittany, France, to take a consignment of 4,000 tons of bauxile.

Our contract states that we have to take delivery between 1st and 5th August, so we will need a ship that will be able to load during those dates. Please advise us if you can get a vessel and let us know the terms.

Yours faithfully,

Shipbroker’s Reply

Dear Mr. Raven,

You should have already received our fax in which we said that we had an option on a vessel, the MS Sheraton, which is docked in Melbourne at present. She has a cargo capacity of 7,000 tons and although she is larger than you wanted, her owners are willing to offer a part charter of her.

They have quoted £ 2.30 per ton which is a very competitive rate considering you will be sharing the cost. Please will you fax your decision as soon as possible? Thank you.

Yours faithfully,


2. Carriage by Air

Bills of Lading, used for consignments by sea, are not used for consignment by air because the goods usually reach their destination before a bill of lading could be prepared. Instead the consignor is required to prepare an Air Waybill (formerly known as an air consignment note) giving particulars of the consignment. The waybill normally consists of twelve copies, three of which are treated as originals-one for the issuing air carrier, one for the consignee and one for the consignor. The remaining copies serve for other possible carriers and customers and record purposes. Responsibility for preparing the waybill is that of the consignor himself, but it is common practice for the air line or its agent to prepare it from details supplied by the consignor on a special form: an instructions For Despatch – Of Goods Form; provided by the air line or by the forwarding agent.

Since the late 1980 many of the customers form have been included in one document; the Single Administrative Document (SAD). This is an eight – part set of forms for export declarations. In addition the Simplified Clearance Procedure (SCP) is also used to make documentation easier for exports and agents if the consignment is taken through different customs posts to member countries.

Like the bill of lading the air waybill serves as a receipt for the goods taken on board and is evidence of the contract of carriage, the terms of which are set out in detail on the back. But unlike the bill of lading the air waybill is not a documents of title.

As when the goods are sent by air, the consignor may use the services of a forwarding agent, or he may deal with the air line himself through its cargo booking section. The commoner practice is to use an agent.

Air cargo is charged by weight except for bulky commodities, which are charged by volume. To encourage movement of traffic by air, special rates are charged for a wide range of enumerated articles. Valuables though, are subject to a surcharge to cover extra handling cost.

Example 1.

Request for Delivery by Air

Dear Sirs,

We would like to send from Heathrow to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, twelve boxes of assorted glassware, to be delivered within the next fortnight.

Each box weight 40kilos, and measures 0,51 cubic metres. Could you please quote charges for shipment and insurance ?

Yours faithfully,

Quotation for Delivery by Air

Dear Mr. Jay,

Thank you for your enquiry of 15 June.

We will be able to send your consignment to Riyadh within two days of your delivering it at Heathrow. The cost of freight Heathrow/Riyadh is £3.60 per kilo, plus £ 1.50 air waybill, and £14.00 customs clearance and handling charges. But you will have to arrange your own insurance.

There are three flights a week from London to Saudi Arabia, Mondy, Wednesday, and Saturday.

Please fill in the enclosed Despatch Form and return it to us with the consignment and commercial invoices, one of which should be included in the parcel for customs inspection.

Yours faithfully,

Example 2. Enquiry sent to air-line

a. Enquiry

Dear Sirs,

We shall shortly have a consignment of watches ready to send to Cuba. Because of their fragile nature we wish to send them by air from Hanoi and should be glad if you would send us particulars of your rate: for freight and other charges, including insurance.

Yours faithfully,


Dear Sirs,

Thank you for you enquiry of 18th June. We shall be pleased to accept the consignment you mentioned. Details of our charges are as follows:

Air freight: Minimum £ 15

Under 45 kg £ 1.59 per kg

Over 45 kg £ 1.19 per kg

Air waybill fee 50p

Insurance 15% of declared value.

Transport to Noi Bai International Aiport should be at your expense and from there on to Havana by Vietnam Airline. Flights are made weekly on Tuesday and your parcel should reach its destination in not more than three days, if it is with us on Monday.

We enclose a copy of our Instructions for Desparch-of-Goods Form. This should be completed, signed and handed in with the parcel, together with the signed commercial invoices, one of which must be included in the parcel, and a certificate of origin.

Yours faithfully,

Example 3. Enquiry through forwarding agent


Dear Sirs,

We shall shortly have a consignment of electrical shavers weighting about forty pounds, for a customers in Vietnam, which we wish to send by air from London

We should be glad if you would handle the consignment for, but first send us details of the cost and of any formalities to be observed. The invoice value of the consignment is £ 920 and we should require insurance cover for this amount plus the cost of sending the consignment.

Yours faithfully,


Dear Sirs,

As soon as we received your letter of 20th Oct. we made inquiries of the air line and can now give you the information asked for concerning your consignment to Vietnam:

Freight charge £ 3.90 per kg

(for consignment weighting less than 45kg)

Air Waybill fee 50p

Insurance 15% of invoiced CIF value

Our own charges 2% of invoiced value

(for preparing documents and arranging despatch)

We look forward to being of service to you.

Yours faithfully,


1. We thank you for your enquiry of May 6th and are pleased to quote as following for the shipment of… to…

1. Chúng tôi xin cám ơn thư của các ngài hỏi về tầu ngày 6 tháng 5 và vui mừng báo giá như sau cho chuyến hàng… chở đến ….

2. In reply to your enquiry of 31st January, we are happy to inform you that MS… will be loading at… from 8th to 12th September, both dates inclusive.

2. Trả lời thư hỏi về tầu của các ngài ngày 31 tháng Giêng chúng tôi vui mừng báo cho ngài biết rằng tầu… sẽ bốc hàng tại… từ 8 đến 12 tháng 9, cả ngày đầu và ngày cuối làm việc.

3. We have today sent to you by M.S… a. consignment of… for which we enclosed bill of lading and invoice.

3. Hôm nay chúng tôi đã gửi cho các ngài chuyến hàng …. trên tầu…. và chúng tôi xin gửi kèm đây vận đơn đường biển và hóa đơn của chuyến hàng.

4. We enclose our invoice for the goods shipped by MS… due to arrive at… on…

4. Chúng tôi xin gửi kèm hóa đơn hàng hóa chở trên tàu….. sẽ đến…. ngày….

5. We enclose the bill of lading for the goods you will shortly receive by MS… which sailed from… on….

5. Chúng tôi xin gửi kèm vận đơn đường biển cho hàng hóa mà các ngài sẽ nhận được nay mai chở trên tầu… khởi hành từ… ngày…..

6. Thank you for your letter of… notifying shipment by MS… of cases of …

6. Xin cám ơn thư của các ngài đề ngày … thông báo giao… kiện hàng… trên ….. tàu….

7. Thank you for your advice of despatch and the bill of lading for the consignment of… shipped by MS.

7. Xin cám ơn các ngài về thông báo giao hàng và vận đơn đường biển cho chuyến hàng… chở trên tầu…

8. We regret that we are still without news of the shipment of…

8. Chúng tôi tiếc là chúng tôi chư nhận được tin tức gì về chuyến hàng…

9. We are due to ship a large quantity of … to… and should be glad if you would obtain a ship of about…. tons capacity.

9. Chúng tôi sắp giao một số lượng lớn… cho (đến)…. và sẽ vui mừng nếu các ngài tìm cho chúng tôi một chiếc tàu trọng tải…. tấn.

10. Please obtain for us a ship with cargo capacity of about… tons for consignment of…. to…

10. Đề nghị tìm cho chúng tôi một con tầu trọng tải khoảng…. tấn cho chuyến hàng…. đi…

11. Please cable and let us know if you wish us to conclude a charter for the goods mentioned.

11. Đề nghị điện và cho chúng tôi biết là ngài có muốn chúng tôi kí hợp đồng thuê cho hàng hóa đã nói không .

12. We shall be glad to know the times and frequency of your sailing.

12. Chúng tôi sẽ vui mừng được biết thời gian và lượt tàu của các ngài.

13. Please inform us of the last day on which the cargo can be accepted.

13. Đề nghị báo cho chúng tôi biết ngày cuối cùng mà hàng hóa có thể được chấp nhận.

14. We hope you will be able to ship this consignment by an earlier vessel.

14. Chúng tôi hi vọng các ngài có thể chở chuyến hàng này bằng một chiếc tàu sớm hơn nào đó.

15. We trust you will be able to ship this consignment by an earlier vessel.

15. Chúng tôi mong rằng các ngài sẽ có thể chở chuyến hàng này bằng một chiếc tầu sớm hơn nào đó.

16. We enclose the bill of lading and insurance policy and hope the consignment will reach you in good time.

16. Chúng tôi xin gửi kèm vận đơn đường biển và đơn bảo hiểm và hi vọng rằng chuyến hàng sẽ đến với các ngài đúng thời gian.

17. You will save both time and money by allowing us to handle the shipping and customs formalities for you.

17. Các ngài sẽ tiết kiệm được cả thời gian và tiền của nêu các ngài cho phép chúng tôi chuyên chở và thông qua cho các ngài.

18. Pleas complete and return the enclosed instructions form, with a signed copy of the invoice.

18. Đề nghị điền vào và gửi lại cho chúng tôi bảng chỉ dẫn vận tải gửi kèm đây cùng với một bản hóa đơn đã kí.

19. We now await your shipping instructions and shall be glad if you will send them by return.

19. Bây giờ chúng tôi đang đợi chỉ dẫn về vận tải và sẽ vui mừng nêu các ngài sẵn lòng gửi cho chúng tôi vào chuyến thư sau.

20. We hope to ship the goods by MS…, sailing from… on…

20. Chúng tôi hi vọng chở hàng trên tàu… khởi hành từ… ngày…


1. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the features of the recent development in shipping?

2. What is the difference between a liner and a tramp?

3. What can shipping and forwarding agents do for importers and exporters?

4. Why do importers and exporters prefer to deal direct with forwarding agents?

5. What is the difference between a bill of lading and an air waybill?

6. What are the advantages of container services?

2. Translate into English

a. Thưa các ngài,

Chúng tôi rất vui mừng nếu các ngài thuê cho chúng tôi một chiếc tầu loại 7.000 tấn để chuyển một lô hàng hóa chất và phân bón hóa học từ Anh về Hải Phòng qua Mũi Hảo Vọng.

Cước phí chắc sẽ không quá…. Bảng một tấn nhưng chúng tôi tin các ngài có thể tranh thủ được các điều kiện khác thuận lợi.

Xét đến điều kiện hiện có tại cảng Hải Phòng và điều kiện bán hàng đã thỏa thuận, chúng tôi quy định rằng tầu phải ở cảng ít nhất là 10 ngày để bốc và dỡ hàng.

Chúng tôi cũng xin nhấn mạnh là tầu phải có mặt ở Liverpool vào ngày 15 tháng 10 và sẵn sàng bốc hàng.

Kính chào,

b. Thưa các ngài,

Trả lời thư của các ngài đề ngày 15 tháng 8 chúng tôi vui mừng thông báo cho các ngài biết rằng chúng tôi đã thuê được loại tàu mà các ngài mong muốn và tất nhiên theo điều kiện mà các ngài đề ra. Đó là tầu X có chất lượng loại A theo đăng kiểm của Lloyd’s, thuyền trưởng là ông Master, một người đi biển từng trải.

Như các ngài sẽ thấy trong hợp đồng thuê tàu gửi kèm là chúng tôi đã tranh thủ được giá cước thấp hơn giá cước các ngài định, thế nhưng mặt khác chúng tôi vẫn bảo đảm với thuyền trưởng số tiền thưởng là 700 bảng Anh nếu ông ta giao hàng cho người nhận hàng một cách thỏa đáng. Chúng tôi hi vọng nhận được sớm tiền hoa hồng 1% đối với giá cước như đã thỏa thuận.

Kính chào,

c. Thưa các ngài,

Chúng tôi đã nhận được thư của các ngài đề ngày ….. và chúng tôi đồng ý với các điều kiện thuê tàu mà các ngài đã dàn xếp.

Chúng tôi xin gửi kèm theo thư này những chỉ dẫn gửi cho thuyền trưởng Master và đề nghị các ngài chuyển cho ông ấy càng sớm càng tốt.

Hoa hồng của các ngài tổng số là 450 bảng sẽ được thanh toán sớm.

Kính chào,

d. Kính gửi thuyền trưởng Master,

Thưa ngài,

Theo thư của ông William, chúng tôi hiểu rằng ông ấy đã thay mặt chúng tôi thuê tầu của ngài để chuyển một lô hàng hóa chất và phân bón về Hải Phòng. Chúng tôi sẽ bốc hàng lên tàu ở cảng Liverpool vào ngày 15 tháng 10. Ngay khi xong việc ngài sẽ cho tàu đến cảng Hải Phòng, tại đây ngài sẽ tiếp xúc với đại lí Tầu biển Việt Nam để làm thủ tục dỡ hàng.

Chúng tôi xin chúc ngài một chuyến đi an toàn và thú vị, chúng tôi cũng tin là ngài sẽ được hưởng số tiền thưởng bốc dỡ nhanh như đã đảm bảo với các ngài.

Kính chào,

3. Letter writing

a. Write to a firm of shipping agents asking them to arrange for a consignment to be collected and make all arrangements for transportation to the United Kingdom. Include imaginary particulars as to the nature of the consignment, names and addresses of and consignee, and say who will take delivery of the consignment upon arrival.

b. Write a letter asking shipping brokers to charter a vessel for shipping a load of fertilizers from Japan to Vietnam. Include such particulars as you think necessary.

c. You wish to send a package containing jewellery by air from Noi Bai International Airport to England. The jwellery is valued at £11,760. You have not previously sent goods by air. Write to your airline asking them for particulars of cost and document required.



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